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Up-and-over or overhead doors are often used in garages. Instead of hinges, it has a mechanism, often counterbalanced or sprung , so it can lift and rest horizontally above the opening. A roller shutter or sectional overhead door is one variant of this type. A tambour door or roller door is an up-and-over door made of narrow horizontal slats and "rolls" up and down by sliding along vertical tracks and is typically found in entertainment centres and cabinets.
Rebated doors , a term chiefly used in Britain, are double doors having a lip or overlap i. Fire-rating can be achieved with an applied edge-guard or astragal molding on the meeting stile, in accordance with the American fire door. Evolution Door is a trackless door that moves in the same closure level as a sliding door. The system is an invention of the Austrian artist Klemens Torggler. Architectural doors have numerous general and specialized uses.
Doors are generally used to separate interior spaces closets, rooms, etc. Doors are also used to secure passages into a building from the exterior, for reasons of climate control and safety. Panel doors, also called stile and rail doors, are built with frame and panel construction. EN is describing the terms which are officially used in European Member States. The main parts are listed below:. Also known as ledges and braced, board and batten doors are an older design consisting primarily of vertical slats:.
Impact-resistant doors have rounded stile edges to dissipate energy and minimize edge chipping, scratching and denting. The formed edges are often made of an engineered material. Impact-resistant doors excel in high traffic areas such as hospitals, schools, hotels and coastal areas.
This type consists of a solid timber frame, filled on one face, face with tongue and groove boards. Quite often used externally with the boards on the weather face. For most of the world, [ citation needed ] door swings , or handing, are determined while standing on the outside or less secure side of the door while facing the door i. It is important to get the hand and swing correct on exterior doors, as the transom is usually sloped and sealed to resist water entry, and properly drain.
In some custom millwork or with some master carpenters , the manufacture or installer bevels the leading edge the first edge to meet the jamb as the door closes so that the door fits tight without binding. Specifying an incorrect hand or swing can make the door bind, not close properly, or leak. Fixing this error is expensive or time-consuming.
In North America, many doors now come with factory-installed hinges, pre-hung on the jamb and sills. While facing the door from the outside or less secure side, if the hinge is on the right side of the door, the door is "right handed"; or if the hinge is on the left, it is "left handed".
If the door swings toward you, it is "reverse swing"; or if the door swings away from you, it is "normal swing". Wooden doors — including solid wood doors — are a top choice for many homeowners, largely because of the aesthetic qualities of wood. Many wood doors are custom-made, but they have several downsides: their price, their maintenance requirements regular painting and staining and their limited insulating value  R-5 to R-6, not including the effects of the glass elements of the doors.
Wood doors often have an overhang requirement to maintain a warranty. An overhang is a roof, porch area or awning that helps to protect the door and its finish from UV rays. Steel doors are another major type of residential front doors; most of them come with a polyurethane or other type of foam insulation core — a critical factor in a building's overall comfort and efficiency. Steel doors mostly in default comes along with frame and lock system, which is a high cost efficiency factor compared to wooden doors.
Most modern exterior walls provide thermal insulation and energy efficiency , which can be indicated by the Energy Star label or the Passive House standards. Premium composite including steel doors with a thick core of polyurethane or other foam , fiberglass and vinyl doors benefit from the materials they are made from, from a thermal perspective. But there are very few door models with an R-value close to 10 the R-value measures how well a barrier resists the conductive flow of heat.
Typical doors are not thick enough to provide very high levels of energy efficiency. Many doors may have good R-values at their center, but their overall energy efficiency is reduced because of the presence of glass and reinforcing elements, or because of poor weatherstripping and the way the door is manufactured. Door weatherstripping is particularly important for energy efficiency. German-made passive house doors use multiple weatherstrips, including magnetic strips, to meet higher standards.
These weatherstrips reduce energy losses due to air leakage. Standard door sizes in the US run along 2" increments. Customary sizes have a height of 78" mm or 80" mm and a width of 18" mm , 24" mm , 26" mm , 28" mm , 30" mm or 36" mm.
Interior doors for wheelchair access must also have a minimum width of 3' 0" 91 cm. Residential interior doors are often somewhat smaller being 6' 8" high, as are many small stores, offices, and other light commercial buildings. Larger commercial, public buildings and grand homes often use doors of greater height.
Older buildings often have smaller doors. Closets: small spaces such as closets, dressing rooms, half-baths, storage rooms, cellars, etc. Garages: Garage doors are generally 7' 0" or 8' 0" wide for a single-car opening. Two car garage doors sometimes called double car doors are a single door 16' 0". Because of size and weight these doors are usually sectional. That is split into four or five horizontal sections so that they can be raised more easily and don't require a lot of additional space above the door when opening and closing.
Single piece double garage doors are common in some older homes. Door sizes are also given in the construction standard for wooden door panels DIN —1. Panel width may be in the range mm to mmm, and the height may be in the range of mm to mm. When framed in wood for snug fitting of a door, the doorway consists of two vertical jambs on either side, a lintel or head jamb at the top, and perhaps a threshold at the bottom.
When a door has more than one movable section, one of the sections may be called a leaf. See door furniture for a discussion of attachments to doors such as door handles , doorknobs , and door knockers. Front door of a house with typical door furniture : a letter box , door knocker , a latch and two locks. A door knocker with putti holding a cartouche , in Paris. Hinge of a door of the St Pancras railway station London. Door furniture or hardware refers to any of the items that are attached to a door or a drawer to enhance its functionality or appearance.
This includes items such as hinges, handles, door stops, etc. Door safety relates to prevention of door-related accidents. Such accidents take place in various forms, and in a number of locations; ranging from car doors to garage doors. Accidents vary in severity and frequency. According to the National Safety Council in the United States, around , door-related injuries occur every year.
The types of accidents vary from relatively minor cases where doors cause damage to other objects, such as walls, to serious cases resulting in human injury, particularly to fingers, hands, and feet. A closing door can exert up to 40 tons per square inch of pressure between the hinges. Because of the number of accidents taking place, there has been a surge in the number of lawsuits.
Thus organisations may be at risk when car doors or doors within buildings are unprotected. It is essential that children's fingers be protected from being crushed or otherwise injured in the hinge space of a swinging door or gate. There are simple devices available to attach to the hinge side, ensuring that this type of injury does not occur. As the door closes, the hand is pushed out of the opening, away from harm. In addition, young children are vulnerable to injury when they fall against the other hinged side of doors and gates, striking projected hinges.
Piano hinges are not recommended to alleviate this problem as they tend to sag over time with heavy use. Instead, an inexpensive device fitting over hinges is available on the market and should be used to ensure safety Whenever a door is opened outward, there is a risk that it could strike another person. In many cases this can be avoided by architectural design which favors doors which open inward to rooms from the perspective of a common area such as a corridor, the door opens outward.
In cases where this is infeasible, it may be possible to avoid an accident by placing vision panels in the door. Inward-hinged doors can also escalate an accident by preventing people from escaping the building: people inside the building may press against the doors, and thus prevent the doors from opening.
Related accidents include:. Today, the exterior doors of most large especially public buildings open outward, while interior doors such as doors to individual rooms, offices, suites, etc. Doorstops are simple devices that prevent a door from contacting and possibly damaging another object typically a wall. They may either absorb the force of a moving door, or hold the door against unintended motion. Door guards hinge guards, anti-finger trapping devices, or finger guards help prevent finger trapping accidents, as doors pose a risk to children, especially when closing.
Door guards protect fingers in door hinges by covering the hinge-side gap of an open door, typically with a piece of rubber or plastic that wraps from the door frame to the door. Other door safety products eject the fingers from the push side of the door as it closes.
There are various levels of door protection. Anti-finger trapping devices in front may leave the rear hinge pin side of doors unprotected. Full door protection uses front and rear anti-finger trapping devices and ensures the hinge side of a door is fully isolated.
A risk assessment of the door determines the appropriate level of protection. Glass doors pose the risk of unintentional collision if a person is unaware there is a door, or thinks it is open when it is not. This risk is greater with sliding glass doors because they often have large single panes that are hard to see. Stickers or other types of warnings on the glass surface make it more visible and help prevent injury. In the UK, Regulation 14 of the Workplace Health and Safety Regulations requires that builders mark windows and glass doors to make them conspicuous.
Australian Standards: AS and AS require that glass doors be made of laminated, tempered, or toughened glass. Buildings often have special purpose doors that automatically close to prevent the spread of fire and smoke. Fire doors that are improperly installed or tampered with can increase risk during a fire. Sometimes, door closer mechanisms ensure fire doors remain closed.
An additional fire risk is that doors may prevent access to emergency services personnel coming to fight the fire and rescue occupants, etc. Fire fighters must use door breaching techniques in these situations to gain access. Doors in public buildings often have panic bars , which open the door in response to anyone pressing against the bar from the inside in the event of a fire or other emergency. Vehicle doors present an increased risk of trapping hands or fingers due to the proximity of occupants.
In some car accidents, injury to occupants from the movement of car doors occurs. Bicyclists cycling on public roads risk dooring : collision with an abruptly opened vehicle door. Because cyclists often ride near parked cars alongside the road, they are particularly vulnerable. In aircraft , doors from pressurized sections to un-pressurized compartments or the exterior can pose risk if they open during flight. Air may rush out of the fuselage with sufficient velocity to eject unsecured occupants, cargo, and other items, and drastic pressure differences between compartments may make aircraft floors or other interior partitions fail.
These concerns are typically mitigated with plug doors , which open in toward the pressurized compartment and are forced into their door frames by the difference in air pressure. Most cabin doors are of this type, but cargo doors typically open outward to maximise interior space, and require hefty locking mechanisms to overcome internal pressure and prevent explosive decompression. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 24 April Movable barrier that allows ingress and egress.
For the band, see The Doors. For other uses, see Door disambiguation. A few examples of doors throughout the world. A massive door socket from Persepolis modern-day Iran. This section provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject. Please help improve the article by providing more context for the reader. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate.
September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Door furniture. Main article: Fire door. Main article: Vehicle door. Further information: Uncontrolled decompression. Biometrics Closed-circuit television Coal hole Door loop , a method for providing electric cabling to a door Door security Double margin doors Electronic lock Hinge bender , a tool for adjusting door hinges Identity document IP camera Janus , Roman god of doors Keycards Locksmithing Lock picking Logical security.
Archived from the original on November 8, — via The Boston Globe. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. Archived from the original on Retrieved Archived PDF from the original on BBC News. The New and Improved Practical Builder. London: Thomas Kelly.
Secured by Design. Police Crime Prevention Initiative. Retrieved 29 October Henleys Security Doors. Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 25 May The Door Zone. Archived from the original on 9 April It permits people to both enter and leaves. It is usually considered a single unit which consists two-panel sections. A sliding door is usually made of wood, aluminum, stainless steel but it appears in its best form when it is made from UPVC plastic glass. A sliding door offers different design possibilities.
We can see the usage of sliding doors in the airport terminal or in a hotel room. A composite door is a new invention which is depicted with the modernistic door technology. Lately, it has become the alternative to wooden, steel or UPVC door. It's not made from a single substance. In most cases, it is made from fiberglass. In spite of having so many advantages, Composite Door has some problems too which regard the following-.
The swinging door is a simplified and easy technique. It is mainly a swinging hurdle that will close the entrance to a room or building or vehicle. Swinging on a double hinge. Sometimes it can swing open in both directions. Mostly, a swinging door is made of steel, metal, aluminum or solid MDF glass.
It is especially important to get the hand and swing correctly as the transom is usually sloped and sealed. Specifying an incorrect hand or swing can cause the door to the blind. It can be reversed or a normal swing. Nowadays, automatic swinging doors are much in demand. Newer revolving doors are the visual focus of an entrance. A revolving door consists of three or four stiff upright sections hanging on a mid shaft and rotates around a vertical axis. It allows a large number of people to pass in and out only by a gentle push.
A revolving door is called "Door without Draft or Air" because it averts drafts and air pressure. The very first revolving door was installed in a restaurant. Mostly, it is used in sports stadium, theme park or airport for bypass security.
Folding door ajars by folding back in sections. It is also known as "Bi-fold Door". Most of them are made of either wood, bamboo, aluminum or PVC. A folding door can be as good as the utility door. It provides fascinating design options such as freely moving, cabinet-hugging or guided systems.
Nearly all time, the position of a folding door is exterior. From residences to restaurants and commercial projects, it has created an overwhelming call; can be used as a room divider too. If properly maintained, this door will perform for years to come. Please note that the information in Civiltoday. The information provided should not be used as a substitute for professional services.
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