Main article: Stress—energy—momentum pseudotensor. Main article: Einstein—Cartan theory. Main article: Einstein—Infeld—Hoffmann equations. Main article: Old quantum theory. Main article: Einstein solid. Main article: Adiabatic invariant. Main article: Bose—Einstein statistics.
Main article: Bohr—Einstein debates. Main article: EPR paradox. Main article: Classical unified field theories. Main article: Einstein's unsuccessful investigations. Main article: Einstein—de Haas effect. Main article: Albert Einstein in popular culture. Main article: List of awards and honors received by Albert Einstein. Further information: List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein. Einstein, Albert [Manuscript received: 16 December ].
Written at Zurich, Switzerland. Annalen der Physik in German. Hoboken, New Jersey published 14 March Bibcode : AnP Einstein, Albert a [Manuscript received: 18 March ]. Written at Berne, Switzerland. Hoboken, New Jersey published 10 March Einstein, Albert b [Completed 30 April and submitted 20 July ]. Written at Berne, Switzerland, published by Wyss Buchdruckerei. Einstein, Albert c [Manuscript received: 11 May ]. Einstein, Albert d [Manuscript received: 30 June ].
Annalen der Physik Submitted manuscript in German. Einstein, Albert e [Manuscript received: 27 September ]. Einstein, Albert [Published 25 November ]. Sitzungsberichte in German. Einstein, Albert [Issued 29 June ]. Sitzungsberichte Bibcode : SPAW Einstein, Albert a.
Einstein, Albert b. Physikalische Zeitschrift in German. Bibcode : PhyZ Einstein, Albert 31 January Retrieved 14 November Einstein, Albert [First published , in English ]. Written at Gothenburg. Nobel Lectures, Physics — in German and English. Stockholm: Nobelprice. Einstein, Albert [Published 10 July ]. Archived from the original Online page images on 14 October First of a series of papers on this topic. Written at Berlin.
Die Naturwissenschaften in German. Heidelberg, Germany. Bibcode : NW ISSN S2CID Translated by Cowper, A. US: Dover Publications published ISBN Retrieved 4 January Einstein, Albert Sonderasugabe aus den Sitzungsb. Einstein, A. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Bibcode : PNAS PMC PMID Einstein, Albert; Rosen, Nathan Physical Review.
Bibcode : PhRv Physical Review Submitted manuscript. Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm. Ideas and Opinions. New York: Crown Publishers. New York: Three Rivers Press. Munich: Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung. Stachel, John ; Martin J. Klein; A. Kox; Michel Janssen; R. Schulmann; Diana Komos Buchwald; et al. The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein. Princeton University Press. Further information about the volumes published so far can be found on the webpages of the Einstein Papers Project and on the Princeton University Press Einstein Page.
Einstein, Albert; et al. The New York Times. Melville, New York. Archived from the original on 17 December Retrieved 25 May Einstein, Albert May Sweezy, Paul; Huberman, Leo eds. Monthly Review. Reprise ". New York: Monthly Review Foundation. Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 16 January — via MonthlyReview. Autobiographical Notes. Paul Arthur Schilpp Centennial ed. Chicago: Open Court. The chasing a light beam thought experiment is described on pages 48— The center was once the Palmer Physical Laboratory.
She has chosen the cream of her culture and has suppressed it. She has even turned upon her most glorious citizen, Albert Einstein, who is the supreme example of the selfless intellectual The man, who, beyond all others, approximates a citizen of the world, is without a home. How proud we must be to offer him temporary shelter. He was quoted as saying that improving the design and changing the types of gases used might allow the design's efficiency to be quadrupled. Oxford University Press.
Archived from the original on 27 November Retrieved 19 July Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. JSTOR Royal Astronomical Society. Archived PDF from the original on 20 December Retrieved 20 December National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on 20 December Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed. Pearson Longman. Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 7 March Modern Atomic and Nuclear Physics.
World Scientific. New York: Walker. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Archived from the original on 13 April Retrieved 4 February December Physics Today. Bibcode : PhT Archived PDF from the original on 28 August Nobel Prize. Archived from the original on 3 July Retrieved 11 July The Trustees of Princeton University. Archived from the original on 28 August The accelerating universe" PDF.
Nobel Media AB. Archived from the original PDF on 16 May Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 24 November Bibcode : Natur. Archived from the original on 9 November Retrieved 21 February The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 12 May Retrieved 23 August Boyer; Melvyn Dubofsky Jewisth Virtual Library. Archived from the original on 9 March Retrieved 13 February Archived from the original on 26 January Parker Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 5 January Prometheus Books.
Archived from the original on 11 May Retrieved 8 August Bloom, Howard 30 August Extract of page Scientific American Blog Network. Archived from the original on 17 October Retrieved 17 October Women's Studies International Forum.
Archived from the original PDF on 19 January Retrieved 19 October Archived from the original PDF on 11 August Retrieved 11 August Archived from the original on 5 January Retrieved 17 August Archived from the original on 4 October Retrieved 4 October BZ Berner Zeitung in German.
Bern, Switzerland. Archived from the original on 16 April Retrieved 11 April Einstein's Berlin: In the footsteps of a genius. Archived from the original on 10 January — via www. Archived from the original on 18 April NatGeo TV. Archived from the original on 23 September Retrieved 9 August The Jerusalem Post JPost.
Retrieved 29 August Hindustan Times. NBC News. Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 15 August The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 8 February Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 10 August Archived from the original on 7 November The Independent.
Archived from the original on 16 November Retrieved 10 November Einstein: A Hundred Years of Relativity. O'Connor; E. Robertson May Archived from the original on 10 September Retrieved 27 March Archived from the original on 30 August Retrieved 9 September Archived from the original on 12 June New York: W. Marcel Grossmann gewidmet Dedicated to my friend, Dr. Marcel Grossmann ". Clegg, Brian ed.
Albert Einstein, in Second Physics: The 50 most fundamental concepts in physics, each explained in half a minute. London: Ivy Press. Einstein Online in German and English. Archived from the original on 21 August Archived PDF from the original on 9 September Retrieved 4 August Archived from the original on 8 June Retrieved 8 June Archived from the original on 22 November Retrieved 22 November Archived from the original on 31 January Retrieved 9 July Gravitation and Cosmology: Principles and applications of the general theory of relativity.
EMBO Reports. Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 21 July Archived from the original on 25 February The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 January Retrieved 13 June Smithsonian Magazine. Archived from the original on 25 December Retrieved 3 January Banquet Speech by R. Nadolny in German ". Retrieved 9 December via Nobelprize. Archived from the original on 12 September Retrieved 18 September Memoria e Ricerca 2 : — See also: "French version".
Retrieved 1 December PDF and "English summary". Archived from the original on 2 November The Journal of Ecclesiastical History. Einstein and the Changing Worldviews of Physics. Science in Context. Archived from the original on 17 April Retrieved 14 March American Masters. Archived from the original on 14 November Retrieved 29 May Einstein on Race and Racism.
Rutgers University Press. Archived from the original on 25 July Retrieved 18 June Archived from the original on 6 September Retrieved 2 June Institute for Advanced Study. Arcadia Publishing. Oxford Chabad Society. Archived from the original on 12 January The Oxford Times.
Archived from the original on 2 April Archived from the original on 29 March Retrieved 4 March Department of Energy, History Division. Archived from the original on 13 June Retrieved 7 June New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Archived from the original on 10 May OCLC Archived PDF from the original on 26 September Retrieved 7 June — via atomicarchive.
The Russell-Einstein Manifesto. Archived from the original on 1 March Retrieved 9 June Archived from the original on 11 February Retrieved 10 February Archived from the original on 2 March Bibcode : Isis Here Comes Einstein's Year". Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 27 October Hebrew University Archived from the original on 18 May Retrieved 31 March The Einstein Scrapbook.
Archived from the original on 22 July Physics World. January Archived from the original PDF on 28 August Schweber Stanley Sadie. London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Revised by Nicolas Slonimsky. New York, Schirmer Books, Retrieved April RR Auction. Archived from the original on 24 May Retrieved 6 June David A. History News Network. Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 29 July National Geographic. Archived from the original on 26 May Retrieved 24 January Archived from the original on 9 June Retrieved 22 August Da Capo Press.
Berkowitz, 25 October ". Archived from the original on 22 June Retrieved 16 February Einstein Archive 59— A Merciful End. Retrieved 26 March Archived from the original on 9 December Retrieved 23 April Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 11 June Einstein Archives Online.
Archived from the original on 13 March November Archived from the original on 12 November Retrieved 24 April Archived from the original on 14 July Retrieved 3 October Archived from the original on 19 March Retrieved 10 March The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 11 March Written at Princeton, NJ. CIV, no.
New York published 19 April Archived from the original on 25 May Retrieved 24 May Robert March Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Bibcode : BuAtS.. Retrieved 12 January Archived from the original on 16 June Retrieved 15 June Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist. Archived from the original on 19 May Retrieved 21 August Retrieved on 21 November Bibcode : Studi..
Lectures on quantum mechanics. Hindustan Book Agency. Seven ideas that shook the universe 2nd ed. The quantum beat: principles and applications of atomic clocks 2nd ed. Foundations of physics. Ox Bow Press. Archived from the original on 8 May Retrieved 3 April Einstein's Big Idea.
Boston: WBGH. Archived from the original on 6 November Gravitational Waves, or a Wrinkle in Spacetime". Nadia Drake. Archived from the original on 12 February Retrieved 6 July Archived from the original on 10 August Bibcode : PhRvL. Archived PDF from the original on 16 February Archived from the original on 19 February Retrieved 12 February Jennifer Chu. MIT News. Archived from the original on 7 April BBC News. New York: Dover. The European Physical Journal H.
Bibcode : EPJH Archived PDF from the original on 29 September Retrieved 31 December Discovering the Expanding Universe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Out There. Archived from the original on 18 March Retrieved 17 March In memoriam Hilmar Duerbeck. Bibcode : arXiv The Crux. American Physical Society. Archived from the original on 15 November Retrieved 7 April Archived from the original on 19 July Archived from the original on 10 June Penguin UK.
Reviews of Modern Physics. Bibcode : RvMP Archived PDF from the original on 29 August Retrieved 18 November Marxists Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 30 August From Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist , publ.
Cambridge University Press, Niels Bohr's report of conversations with Einstein. Retrieved 28 February Georgia Tech Alumni Magazine. Retrieved on 12 November Archived from the original on 24 January Retrieved 22 February Archived from the original on 2 May Archived from the original on 21 January Corbis Rights Representation.
Archived from the original on 19 August Archived from the original on 14 April Skeptical Inquirer. Social Studies of Science. The New Yorker. Retrieved 15 April Retrieved 17 July Archived from the original on 21 February Retrieved 25 February Archived from the original on 5 July Retrieved 4 May Archived from the original on 4 November Calaprice, Alice The Expanded Quotable Einstein. The New Quotable Einstein. Calaprice, Alice; Lipscombe, Trevor Albert Einstein: A Biography.
Greenwood Publishing Group. The Ultimate Quotable Einstein. An Einstein Encyclopedia. Chaplin, Charles Charles Chaplin: My Autobiography. New York: Simon and Schuster. Clark, Ronald W. Einstein: The Life and Times. New York: Avon Books. Albert Einstein. Translated by Osers, Ewald. Abridged by Ewald Osers. New York: Penguin Viking. Fine, Arthur Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Galison, Peter Winter Critical Inquiry.
Glick, Thomas F. The Comparative Reception of Relativity. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Highfield, Roger ; Carter, Paul The Private Lives of Albert Einstein. London: Faber and Faber. Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics and the most influential physicist of the 20th century. The latter was pivotal in establishing quantum theory within physics. He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in , and did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences.
He settled in America becoming a citizen in He helped alert President Franklin D. Roosevelt that Germany might be developing an atomic weapon, and recommended that the U. He was in support of defending the Allied forces, but largely denounced using the new discovery of nuclear fission as a weapon.
Later, together with Bertrand Russell, Einstein signed the Russell-Einstein Manifesto, which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons. He published more than scientific papers along with over non-scientific works. His great intelligence and originality have made the word Einstein synonymous with genius. Hi there! Create an account Buy images Sell images Lightboxes Contact us. Share Alamy images with your team and customers.
Learn how to also be subject an extra port, our video series shown the corresponding. You can use has a system of advanced search, use the quick. Add the shelf of this code you can use. So when you xstartup file that will have agreed.
He became a full professor at Karl-Ferdinand University in Prague in In , he returned to Germany after being appointed director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics — [ 40 ] and a professor at the Humboldt University of Berlin , with a special clause in his contract that freed him from most teaching obligations. He became a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences.
In , Einstein was appointed president of the German Physical Society — In , he had calculated that, based on his new theory of general relativity, light from another star would be bent by the Sun's gravity. That prediction was claimed confirmed by observations made by a British expedition led by Sir Arthur Eddington during the solar eclipse of 29 May International media reports of this made Einstein world famous. In , Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.
Because relativity was still considered somewhat controversial, it was officially bestowed for his explanation of the photoelectric effect. He also received the Copley Medal from the Royal Society in Einstein visited New York City for the first time on 2 April , where he received an official welcome by the Mayor , followed by three weeks of lectures and receptions. He went on to deliver several lectures at Columbia University and Princeton University, and in Washington he accompanied representatives of the National Academy of Science on a visit to the White House.
On his return to Europe he was the guest of the British statesman and philosopher Viscount Haldane in London, where he met several renowned scientific, intellectual and political figures, and delivered a lecture at Kings College. In , he traveled throughout Asia and later to Palestine, as part of a six-month excursion and speaking tour.
His travels included Singapore , Ceylon, and Japan, where he gave a series of lectures to thousands of Japanese. His first lecture in Tokyo lasted four hours, after which he met the emperor and empress at the Imperial Palace where thousands came to watch. Einstein later gave his impressions of the Japanese in a letter to his sons: [ 45 ] "Of all the people I have met, I like the Japanese most, as they are modest, intelligent, considerate, and have a feel for art.
On his return voyage, he also visited Palestine for 12 days in what would become his only visit to that region. This included a cannon salute upon his arrival at the residence of the British high commissioner, Sir Herbert Samuel. During one reception given to him, the building was "stormed by throngs who wanted to hear him". In Einstein's talk to the audience, he expressed his happiness over the event:.
In , Einstein decided to emigrate to the United States due to the rise to power of the Nazis under Germany's new chancellor, Adolf Hitler. A month later, the Nazi book burnings occurred, with Einstein's works being among those burnt, and Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels proclaimed, "Jewish intellectualism is dead.
Einstein was undertaking his third two-month visiting professorship at the California Institute of Technology when Hitler came to power in Germany. On his return to Europe in March he resided in Belgium for some months, before temporarily moving to England. He took up a position at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton , New Jersey, [ 49 ] an affiliation that lasted until his death in The two would take long walks together discussing their work.
His last assistant was Bruria Kaufman , who later became a renowned physicist. During this period, Einstein tried to develop a unified field theory and to refute the accepted interpretation of quantum physics, both unsuccessfully. Other scientists also fled to America. Among them were Nobel laureates and professors of theoretical physics.
With so many other Jewish scientists now forced by circumstances to live in America, often working side by side, Einstein wrote to a friend, "For me the most beautiful thing is to be in contact with a few fine Jews—a few millennia of a civilized past do mean something after all. The group's warnings were discounted.
Roosevelt to alert him of the possibility. The letter also recommended that the U. The letter is believed to be "arguably the key stimulus for the U. As a result of Einstein's letter and his meetings with Roosevelt, the U. It became the only country to develop an atomic bomb during World War II.
For Einstein, "war was a disease. In fact, he urged the Western powers to prepare themselves against another German onslaught. Einstein became an American citizen in Not long after settling into his career at Princeton, he expressed his appreciation of the " meritocracy " in American culture when compared to Europe. According to Isaacson, he recognized the "right of individuals to say and think what they pleased", without social barriers, and as result, the individual was "encouraged" to be more creative, a trait he valued from his own early education.
Einstein writes:. What makes the new arrival devoted to this country is the democratic trait among the people. No one humbles himself before another person or class. American youth has the good fortune not to have its outlook troubled by outworn traditions. Du Bois , and in Einstein called racism America's "worst disease". The only remedies are enlightenment and education".
All my life I have dealt with objective matters, hence I lack both the natural aptitude and the experience to deal properly with people and to exercise official function. I am the more distressed over these circumstances because my relationship with the Jewish people became my strongest human tie once I achieved complete clarity about our precarious position among the nations of the world. On 17 April , Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm , which had previously been reinforced surgically by Dr.
Rudolph Nissen in It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it elegantly. During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey , removed Einstein's brain for preservation without the permission of his family, in the hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent.
In his lecture at Einstein's memorial, nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer summarized his impression of him as a person: "He was almost wholly without sophistication and wholly without worldliness. There was always with him a wonderful purity at once childlike and profoundly stubborn. Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and articles. These four works contributed substantially to the foundation of modern physics and changed views on space , time, and matter. The four papers are:.
Albert Einstein's first paper [ 66 ] submitted in to Annalen der Physik was on capillary attraction. Two papers he published in — thermodynamics attempted to interpret atomic phenomena from a statistical point of view.
These papers were the foundation for the paper on Brownian motion. These published calculations showed that Brownian movement can be construed as firm evidence that molecules exist. His research in and was mainly concerned with the effect of finite atomic size on diffusion phenomena.
He articulated the principle of relativity. This was understood by Hermann Minkowski to be a generalization of rotational invariance from space to space-time. Other principles postulated by Einstein and later vindicated are the principle of equivalence and the principle of adiabatic invariance of the quantum number. It reconciles Maxwell's equations for electricity and magnetism with the laws of mechanics, by introducing major changes to mechanics close to the speed of light.
This later became known as Einstein's special theory of relativity. Consequences of this include the time-space frame of a moving body appearing to slow down and contract in the direction of motion when measured in the frame of the observer. This paper also argued that the idea of a luminiferous aether — one of the leading theoretical entities in physics at the time — was superfluous.
In a paper, [ 71 ] Einstein postulated that light itself consists of localized particles quanta. Einstein's light quanta were nearly universally rejected by all physicists, including Max Planck and Niels Bohr.
This idea only became universally accepted in , with Robert Millikan's detailed experiments on the photoelectric effect , and with the measurement of Compton scattering. Einstein concluded that each wave of frequency f is associated with a collection of photons with energy hf each, where h is Planck's constant. He does not say much more, because he is not sure how the particles are related to the wave. But he does suggest that this idea would explain certain experimental results, notably the photoelectric effect.
In Einstein proposed a model of matter where each atom in a lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator. In the Einstein model, each atom oscillates independently — a series of equally spaced quantized states for each oscillator.
Einstein was aware that getting the frequency of the actual oscillations would be different, but he nevertheless proposed this theory because it was a particularly clear demonstration that quantum mechanics could solve the specific heat problem in classical mechanics. Peter Debye refined this model. Throughout the s, quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover many different systems. After Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus and proposed that electrons orbit like planets, Niels Bohr was able to show that the same quantum mechanical postulates introduced by Planck and developed by Einstein would explain the discrete motion of electrons in atoms, and the periodic table of the elements.
Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the arguments Wilhelm Wien had made. Wien had shown that the hypothesis of adiabatic invariance of a thermal equilibrium state allows all the blackbody curves at different temperature to be derived from one another by a simple shifting process. Einstein noted in that the same adiabatic principle shows that the quantity which is quantized in any mechanical motion must be an adiabatic invariant.
Arnold Sommerfeld identified this adiabatic invariant as the action variable of classical mechanics. The law that the action variable is quantized was a basic principle of the quantum theory as it was known between and Although the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class in , he had not given up on academia. In , he became a privatdozent at the University of Bern. This paper introduced the photon concept although the name photon was introduced later by Gilbert N.
Lewis in and inspired the notion of wave—particle duality in quantum mechanics. Einstein returned to the problem of thermodynamic fluctuations, giving a treatment of the density variations in a fluid at its critical point. Ordinarily the density fluctuations are controlled by the second derivative of the free energy with respect to the density.
At the critical point, this derivative is zero, leading to large fluctuations. The effect of density fluctuations is that light of all wavelengths is scattered, making the fluid look milky white. Einstein relates this to Raleigh scattering, which is what happens when the fluctuation size is much smaller than the wavelength, and which explains why the sky is blue. Einstein's physical intuition led him to note that Planck's oscillator energies had an incorrect zero point.
This argument, which was made in in collaboration with Otto Stern , was based on the thermodynamics of a diatomic molecule which can split apart into two free atoms. General relativity GR is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Albert Einstein between and According to general relativity , the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from the warping of space and time by those masses.
General relativity has developed into an essential tool in modern astrophysics. It provides the foundation for the current understanding of black holes , regions of space where gravitational attraction is so strong that not even light can escape. As Albert Einstein later said, the reason for the development of general relativity was that the preference of inertial motions within special relativity was unsatisfactory, while a theory which from the outset prefers no state of motion even accelerated ones should appear more satisfactory.
In that article, he argued that free fall is really inertial motion, and that for a freefalling observer the rules of special relativity must apply. This argument is called the Equivalence principle. In the same article, Einstein also predicted the phenomenon of gravitational time dilation. In , Einstein published another article expanding on the article, in which additional effects such as the deflection of light by massive bodies were predicted.
While developing general relativity, Einstein became confused about the gauge invariance in the theory. He formulated an argument that led him to conclude that a general relativistic field theory is impossible. He gave up looking for fully generally covariant tensor equations, and searched for equations that would be invariant under general linear transformations only.
In June, the Entwurf "draft" theory was the result of these investigations. As its name suggests, it was a sketch of a theory, with the equations of motion supplemented by additional gauge fixing conditions. Simultaneously less elegant and more difficult than general relativity, after more than two years of intensive work Einstein abandoned the theory in November, after realizing that the hole argument was mistaken.
In , Einstein applied the General theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole. He wanted the universe to be eternal and unchanging, but this type of universe is not consistent with relativity. To fix this, Einstein modified the general theory by introducing a new notion, the cosmological constant.
With a positive cosmological constant, the universe could be an eternal static sphere. Einstein believed a spherical static universe is philosophically preferred, because it would obey Mach's principle. He had shown that general relativity incorporates Mach's principle to a certain extent in frame dragging by gravitomagnetic fields , but he knew that Mach's idea would not work if space goes on forever.
In a closed universe, he believed that Mach's principle would hold. Mach's principle has generated much controversy over the years. In , at the height of his work on relativity, Einstein published an article in Physikalische Zeitschrift that proposed the possibility of stimulated emission , the physical process that makes possible the maser and the laser.
This paper was enormously influential in the later development of quantum mechanics, because it was the first paper to show that the statistics of atomic transitions had simple laws. Einstein discovered Louis de Broglie 's work, and supported his ideas, which were received skeptically at first.
In another major paper from this era, Einstein gave a wave equation for de Broglie waves , which Einstein suggested was the Hamilton—Jacobi equation of mechanics. In , Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose , based on a counting method that assumed that light could be understood as a gas of indistinguishable particles.
Einstein also published his own articles describing the model and its implications, among them the Bose—Einstein condensate phenomenon that some particulates should appear at very low temperatures. Einstein's sketches for this project may be seen in the Einstein Archive in the library of the Leiden University. General relativity includes a dynamical spacetime, so it is difficult to see how to identify the conserved energy and momentum. Noether's theorem allows these quantities to be determined from a Lagrangian with translation invariance , but general covariance makes translation invariance into something of a gauge symmetry.
The energy and momentum derived within general relativity by Noether's presecriptions do not make a real tensor for this reason. Einstein argued that this is true for fundamental reasons, because the gravitational field could be made to vanish by a choice of coordinates. He maintained that the non-covariant energy momentum pseudotensor was in fact the best description of the energy momentum distribution in a gravitational field. This approach has been echoed by Lev Landau and Evgeny Lifshitz , and others, and has become standard.
Following his research on general relativity, Einstein entered into a series of attempts to generalize his geometric theory of gravitation to include electromagnetism as another aspect of a single entity. In , he described his " unified field theory " in a Scientific American article entitled "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation".
In his pursuit of a unification of the fundamental forces, Einstein ignored some mainstream developments in physics, most notably the strong and weak nuclear forces, which were not well understood until many years after his death. Mainstream physics, in turn, largely ignored Einstein's approaches to unification. Einstein's dream of unifying other laws of physics with gravity motivates modern quests for a theory of everything and in particular string theory , where geometrical fields emerge in a unified quantum-mechanical setting.
Einstein collaborated with others to produce a model of a wormhole. His motivation was to model elementary particles with charge as a solution of gravitational field equations, in line with the program outlined in the paper "Do Gravitational Fields play an Important Role in the Constitution of the Elementary Particles? These solutions cut and pasted Schwarzschild black holes to make a bridge between two patches. If one end of a wormhole was positively charged, the other end would be negatively charged.
These properties led Einstein to believe that pairs of particles and antiparticles could be described in this way. In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general relativity, the affine connection needed to be generalized to include an antisymmetric part, called the torsion. This modification was made by Einstein and Cartan in the s.
The theory of general relativity has a fundamental law — the Einstein equations which describe how space curves, the geodesic equation which describes how particles move may be derived from the Einstein equations. Since the equations of general relativity are non-linear, a lump of energy made out of pure gravitational fields, like a black hole, would move on a trajectory which is determined by the Einstein equations themselves, not by a new law.
So Einstein proposed that the path of a singular solution, like a black hole, would be determined to be a geodesic from general relativity itself. This was established by Einstein, Infeld, and Hoffmann for pointlike objects without angular momentum, and by Roy Kerr for spinning objects. Einstein conducted other investigations that were unsuccessful and abandoned.
These pertain to force , superconductivity , gravitational waves, and other research. Please see the main article for details. In addition to long time collaborators Leopold Infeld , Nathan Rosen , Peter Bergmann and others, Einstein also had some one-shot collaborations with various scientists. Einstein and De Haas demonstrated that magnetization is due to the motion of electrons, nowadays known to be the spin.
In order to show this, they reversed the magnetization in an iron bar suspended on a torsion pendulum. They confirmed that this leads the bar to rotate, because the electron's angular momentum changes as the magnetization changes. This experiment needed to be sensitive, because the angular momentum associated with electrons is small, but it definitively established that electron motion of some kind is responsible for magnetization. Then to each possible quantum motion of a particle in a box associate an independent harmonic oscillator.
Quantizing these oscillators, each level will have an integer occupation number, which will be the number of particles in it. This formulation is a form of second quantization, but it predates modern quantum mechanics. This absorption refrigerator was then revolutionary for having no moving parts and using only heat as an input. Their invention was not immediately put into commercial production, as the most promising of their patents were quickly bought up by the Swedish company Electrolux to protect its refrigeration technology from competition.
The Bohr—Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr who were two of its founders. No one could have guessed this would happen when he was at school. He was extremely interested in science but hated the system of learning by heart. He said it destroyed learning and creativity.
He had already done many experiments, but failed the entrance exams to a technical college. When he was 16, he performed his famous experiment of imagining traveling alongside a beam of light. He eventually graduated from university, in , with a degree in physics. Twelve years later he was a university professor and in , he won the Nobel Prize for Physics. He went on to publish over scientific papers. Einstein is the only scientist to become a cult figure, a household name, and part of everyday culture.
He once joked that when people stopped him in the street, he always replied: "Pardon me, sorry! Always I am mistaken for Professor Einstein. Mail this lesson to friends and teachers. Click the below. He must have been pretty brainy to discover. He had already done many experiments, but failed the. He was extremely interested in science but hated the system of learning by.
When he was 16, he performed his famous experiment of imagining. Always I am. No one could have guessed this would. His name has become part of many languages when we want to say. He eventually graduated from university, in , with a degree in.
German-born a was Einstein Albert physicist. Write five questions about Einstein in the table. Return to your original partner s and share and talk about what you found out.
Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist, widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest and most influential physicists of all time. Einstein is best known for developing the theory of relativity, but he also made important. Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist, widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest and most influential physicists of all time. Einstein. Albert Einstein, (born March 14, , Ulm, Württemberg, Germany—died April 18, , Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.), German-born physicist.