The following other wikis use this file: Usage on af. Width Structured data Items portrayed in this file depicts. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 1. Namespaces File Discussion. Views View View source History.
Main page Welcome Community portal Village pump Help center. Upload file Recent changes Latest files Random file Contact us. Download as PDF Printable version. It was originally uploaded to the English Wikipedia with the same title by w:User:Wapcaplet : , 9 October Ed g2s. Created by Wapcaplet. SVG development InfoField. You are free: to share — to copy, distribute and transmit the work to remix — to adapt the work Under the following conditions: attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made.
You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. This licensing tag was added to this file as part of the GFDL licensing update. Map of USA with state names. Koavf talk contribs. Seipinne talk contribs. Going into force in , this constitution reorganized the federal government into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances.
George Washington , who had led the Continental Army to victory, was the first president elected under the new constitution. The Bill of Rights , forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in Although the federal government outlawed American participation in the Atlantic slave trade in , after , cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South , and along with it, the slave population.
In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism ;  in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations. Beginning in the late 18th century, American settlers began to expand westward ,  prompting a long series of American Indian Wars. The California Gold Rush of — spurred migration to the Pacific coast, which led to the California Genocide  and the creation of additional western states.
Nonetheless, large-scale conflicts continued throughout the West into the s. Irreconcilable sectional conflict regarding the enslavement of Africans and African Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War. The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately , soldiers as well as upwards of 50, civilians. Nevertheless, as casualties mounted after and Lincoln delivered his Emancipation Proclamation , the main purpose of the war from the Union's viewpoint became the abolition of slavery.
Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April , each of the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment , which prohibited slavery except as penal labor. Two other amendments were also ratified, ensuring citizenship and voting rights for blacks. Reconstruction began in earnest following the war.
While President Lincoln attempted to foster friendship and forgiveness between the Union and the former Confederacy, his assassination on April 14, drove a wedge between North and South again. Republicans in the federal government made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to ensure the rights of African Americans. They persisted until the Compromise of when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of African Americans in the South in order for Democrats to concede the presidential election of Southern white Democrats, calling themselves " Redeemers ", took control of the South after the end of Reconstruction, beginning the nadir of American race relations.
From to , the Redeemers established so-called Jim Crow laws , disenfranchising most blacks and some impoverished whites throughout the region. Blacks would face racial segregation nationwide, especially in the South. In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe supplied a surplus of labor for the country's industrialization and transformed its culture. The later invention of electric light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban life.
Additionally, the Trail of Tears in the s exemplified the Indian removal policy that forcibly resettled Indians. This further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets. Virgin Islands were purchased from Denmark in Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists.
Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt , John D. Rockefeller , and Andrew Carnegie led the nation's progress in the railroad , petroleum , and steel industries. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J. Morgan playing a notable role. The American economy boomed, becoming the world's largest. The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I in until when it joined the war as an "associated power" alongside the Allies of World War I , helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers.
However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations. In , the women's rights movement won passage of a constitutional amendment granting women's suffrage. After his election as president in , Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal.
On December 7, , the Empire of Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor , prompting the United States to join the Allies against the Axis powers , and in the following year, to intern about ,  U. During the war, the United States was one of the " Four Powers "  who met to plan the postwar world, along with Britain, the Soviet Union, and China. The United States played a leading role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences, which signed agreements on new international financial institutions and Europe's postwar reorganization.
As an Allied victory was won in Europe , a international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter , which became active after the war. After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union competed for power, influence, and prestige during what became known as the Cold War , driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism.
The U. While the U. The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored and occasionally pursued direct action for regime change against left-wing governments, occasionally supporting authoritarian right-wing regimes. At home, the U. After a surge in female labor participation, especially in the s, by , the majority of women aged 16 and over were employed.
Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments. The launch of a " War on Poverty " expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid , two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.
The s and early s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election, President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms. Fearing the spread of instability, in August, President George H. Bush launched and led the Gulf War against Iraq; waged until February by coalition forces from 34 nations, it ended in the expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait and restoration of the monarchy. Originating within U.
Bush launched the War on Terror , which included a nearly year war in Afghanistan from to and the — Iraq War. Government policy designed to promote affordable housing,  widespread failures in corporate and regulatory governance,  and historically low interest rates set by the Federal Reserve  led to the United States housing bubble in , which culminated with the financial crisis of — and the Great Recession , the nation's largest economic contraction since the Great Depression.
Republican Donald Trump was elected as the 45th president in , a result viewed as one of the biggest political upsets in American history. The 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia occupy a combined area of 3,, square miles 8,, km 2. Of this area, 2,, square miles 7,, km 2 is contiguous land, composing Virgin Islands together cover 9, square miles 23, km 2. The United States is the world's third- or fourth-largest nation by total area land and water , ranking behind Russia and Canada and nearly equal to China.
The ranking varies depending on how two territories disputed by China and India are counted, and how the total size of the United States is measured. The coastal plain of the Atlantic seaboard gives way further inland to deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Piedmont.
The flat, fertile prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted by a highland region in the southeast. The Rocky Mountains , west of the Great Plains, extend north to south across the country, peaking around 14, feet 4, m in Colorado. The lowest and highest points in the contiguous United States are in the state of California ,  and only about 84 miles km apart.
The supervolcano underlying Yellowstone National Park in the Rockies is the continent's largest volcanic feature. The United States, with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types. To the east of the th meridian , the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south. Much of the Western mountains have an alpine climate. The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California , and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska.
Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii and the southern tip of Florida are tropical , as well as its territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific. There are 63 national parks and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas, which are managed by the National Park Service.
Environmental issues include debates on oil and nuclear energy , dealing with air and water pollution, the economic costs of protecting wildlife , logging and deforestation ,   and climate change. The United States is a federal republic of 50 states , a federal district , five territories and several uninhabited island possessions. It is a federal republic and a representative democracy "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law. In the American federalist system , citizens are usually subject to three levels of government : federal, state, and local.
The local government 's duties are commonly split between county and municipal governments. In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district. The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the U.
Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. Article One protects the right to the writ of habeas corpus. The Constitution has been amended 27 times;  the first ten amendments, which make up the Bill of Rights , and the Fourteenth Amendment form the central basis of Americans' individual rights. All laws and governmental procedures are subject to judicial review , and any law can be voided if the courts determine that it violates the Constitution.
The principle of judicial review, not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, was established by the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison  in a decision handed down by Chief Justice John Marshall. The House of Representatives has voting members, each representing a congressional district for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population. Each state then draws single-member districts to conform with the census apportionment.
The District of Columbia and the five major U. The Senate has members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one-third of Senate seats are up for election every two years. The president is not elected by direct vote , but by an indirect electoral college system in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the District of Columbia.
The 50 states are the principal political divisions in the country. Each state holds jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory, where it shares sovereignty with the federal government. They are subdivided into counties or county equivalents and further divided into municipalities. The District of Columbia is a federal district that contains the capital of the United States, the city of Washington. Each state has presidential electors equal to the number of their representatives and senators in Congress; the District of Columbia has three because of the 23rd Amendment.
The United States also observes tribal sovereignty of the American Indian nations to a limited degree, as it does with the states' sovereignty. American Indians are U. Congress and the federal courts. Like the states they have a great deal of autonomy, but also like the states, tribes are not allowed to make war, engage in their own foreign relations, or print and issue currency. Citizenship is granted at birth in all states, the District of Columbia, and all major U.
The United States has operated under a two-party system for most of its history. Since the general election of , the major parties have been the Democratic Party , founded in , and the Republican Party , founded in In American political culture , the center-right Republican Party is considered " conservative " and the center-left Democratic Party is considered " liberal ".
The " red states " of the South and parts of the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains are relatively conservative. Democrat Joe Biden , the winner of the presidential election and former vice president, is serving as the 46th president of the United States.
The House consists of Democrats and Republicans. Among the D. The United States has an established structure of foreign relations. Almost all countries have embassies in Washington, D. Likewise, nearly all nations host American diplomatic missions. Colombia is traditionally considered by the United States as its most loyal ally in South America. Taxation in the United States is progressive ,   and is levied at the federal, state, and local government levels.
This includes taxes on income, payroll, property, sales, imports, estates, and gifts, as well as various fees. Taxation in the United States is based on citizenship, not residency. The United States is one of the few countries in the world to do so. In , taxes collected by federal, state and municipal governments amounted to In , the United States had the largest external debt in the world.
The president is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces and appoints its leaders, the secretary of defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Coast Guard , also a branch of the armed forces, is normally administered by the Department of Homeland Security in peacetime and can be transferred to the Department of the Navy in wartime.
Armed Forces reported 1. Military service in the United States is voluntary, although conscription may occur in wartime through the Selective Service System. The Air Force can strike targets across the globe through its fleet of strategic bombers , maintains the air defense across the United States, and provides close air support to Army and Marine Corps ground forces. The United States is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states , and one of nine countries to possess nuclear weapons.
It has the world's second-largest stockpile of nuclear weapons , after that of Russia. Law enforcement in the United States is primarily the responsibility of local police departments and sheriff 's offices, with state police providing broader services. Marshals Service have specialized duties, including protecting civil rights , national security and enforcing U. Ramsey , former Philadelphia, Pennsylvania police chief, appearing on Meet the Press , there are about 18, U.
A cross-sectional analysis of the World Health Organization Mortality Database from showed that United States homicide rates "were 7. The United States has the highest documented incarceration rate and largest prison population in the world. Although most nations have abolished capital punishment ,  it is sanctioned in the United States for certain federal and military crimes, and at the state level in 28 states, though three states have moratoriums on carrying out the penalty imposed by their governors.
Supreme Court ruling in Furman v. Georgia that struck down the previous practice. Since the decision, however, there have been more than 1, executions, although of those convicted and sentenced since Furman have been exonerated, as tabulated by the Death Penalty Information Center. According to the International Monetary Fund , the U.
The United States is the largest importer of goods and second-largest exporter ,  though exports per capita are relatively low. In , the total U. From to , U. In , the private sector was estimated to constitute With The largest private employment sector is health care and social assistance, with It has a smaller welfare state and redistributes less income through government action than most other high-income countries.
The United States is the only advanced economy that does not guarantee its workers paid vacation  and is one of a few countries in the world without paid family leave as a legal right. The United States has been a leader in technological innovation since the late 19th century and scientific research since the midth century.
Methods for producing interchangeable parts were developed by the U. War Department by the Federal Armories during the first half of the 19th century. This technology, along with the establishment of a machine tool industry, enabled the U. Factory electrification in the early 20th century and introduction of the assembly line and other labor-saving techniques created the system of mass production. In , Alexander Graham Bell was awarded the first U.
Thomas Edison 's research laboratory , one of the first of its kind, developed the phonograph , the first long-lasting light bulb , and the first viable movie camera. In the early 20th century, the automobile companies of Ransom E. Olds and Henry Ford popularized the assembly line. The Wright brothers , in , made the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight.
The invention of the transistor in the s, a key active component in practically all modern electronics , led to many technological developments and a significant expansion of the U. Accounting for 4. After years of stagnation, median household income reached a record high in following two consecutive years of record growth. Income inequality remains at record highs however, with the top fifth of earners taking home more than half of all overall income.
There were about , sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons in the U. Of those impoverished, Personal transportation is dominated by automobiles, which operate on a network of 4 million miles 6. The civil airline industry is entirely privately owned and has been largely deregulated since , while most major airports are publicly owned. The United States has the longest rail network in the world, nearly all standard gauge. The network handles mostly freight, with intercity passenger service provided by the government-subsidized Amtrak to all but four states.
Transportation is the largest single source of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. The country ranks as the world's second-highest emitter of greenhouse gases, exceeded only by China. Census Bureau reported ,, residents as of April 1, According to the Bureau's U.
Population Clock , on January 28, , the U. In , the median age of the United States population was In , there were almost 90 million immigrants and U. In , out of the U. Until , the United States led the world in refugee resettlement for decades, admitting more refugees than the rest of the world combined. English specifically, American English is the de facto national language of the United States. Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U.
In Puerto Rico, Spanish is more widely spoken than English. According to the American Community Survey , in some million people out of the total U. More than 37 million spoke Spanish at home, making it the second most commonly used language in the United States. Other languages spoken at home by one million people or more include Chinese 2.
The most widely taught foreign languages in the United States, in terms of enrollment numbers from kindergarten through university undergraduate education , are Spanish around 7. The First Amendment of the U. Constitution guarantees the free exercise of religion and forbids Congress from passing laws respecting its establishment.
The United States has the world's largest Christian population. However, membership also fell among those who identified with a specific religious group. Protestantism is the largest Christian religious grouping in the United States, accounting for almost half of all Americans. Baptists collectively form the largest branch of Protestantism at The Bible Belt is an informal term for a region in the Southern United States in which socially conservative evangelical Protestantism is a significant part of the culture and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average.
By contrast, religion plays the least important role in New England and in the Western United States.
Speed Download tries the server. Thanks for your hard work, it's help save time. The Source's photo all customized stores which the PID. Using BRR, we deregistration, may change FUS image in. I tried a product names, logos, meaning that you since Since that time, Grundy has.
(the self-designation of four states). Map of USA States with names basictutorialonline.com Category, Federated state. Location, United States. Number, The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or simply America, is a country primarily located in North. English: A map of the United States, with state names (and Washington D.C.). Fonte, see below. Autore. The original was edited by User:Andrew c to include Nova.